Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang
Balancing Ethics in Life Science Research
There is growing anxiety that technological progress in life science research will precipitate widespread harm to health, social inequality and conflict. Perhaps due to our colonial histories, we often think that the best solution to make something more ‘ethical’ is by adopting Western standards and coupling them with more stringent rules that may ultimately inhibit research progress. Thus, there needs to be a robust interdisciplinary discourse that exposes researchers in this region to ethical reflexivity so that we are able to identify innovative ways to balance the risk of significant harm and the promise of dramatic benefit that takes into account our unique historical and cultural perspectives and the realities of the highly interconnected world we live in today.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang
Dr Tatyana Novossiolova
Bradford University, UK
Bioethics & Biosecurity Education Tools
The learning process during didactic lectures is usually passive and superficial. It is often associated with poor student/listener motivation and engagement. Thus, the introduction of innovative pedagogical approaches, such as active learning is essential. This workshop will allow participants to assess how effective educational tools can increase student motivation, engagement and more importantly, positively impact practice. Participants will be equipped with various educational tools that can be applied to enhance the bioethics and biosecurity dialogue in their respective institutions.
Mr Absalom Mai Gileg
Vector Borne Disease Unit, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research
Biosafety Challenges and Practices in Papua New Guinea
PNG does not have any Biosafety regulation in place. Most of the health facilities do not have an effective Biosafety and OHS management system in place. PNG Institute of Medical Research through its scientific and management team have put in place engineering controls, PPE, SOPs and safety guidelines to minimise exposures and create a safer environment for staff to work. PNG requires support from A-PBA and other similar organisations to help PNG address its Biosafety issues in the country.
Albert Bunyasi MSc
IFBA Program Coordinator East African Region
National Biosafety and Biosecurity Program Coordinator
Ministry of Health
Sharing Biosafety Experiences in Kenya
Change and time, these are two important items in life today, more so in this era of Bioterrorism as we are faced with challenges and threats as relates to the same. This means that there is an urgent need for change in a timely manner the way we have been carrying out our scientific activities otherwise being overtaken by events is absolutely inevitable. In this presentation we shall be able to look at the Biosafety experiences in Kenya today.
The movements of wild birds tagged with satellite transmitters in Thailand and the diffusion of HPAI H5N1 virus
During a study of Avian Influenza at human-animal interface in Thailand, a total of 20 wild birds were equipped with satellite transmitters to investigate their potential roles in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. The birds involved in this study were 8 brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), 5 Asian open-billed storks (Anastomus oscitans), 4 lesser whistling ducks (Dendrocygna javanica) and 3 great egrets (Egretta alba). These birds were remotely monitored with Argos satellite tracking system. From 2007 to 2013, satellite signals were consecutively retrieved from the birds. It was revealed that brown-headed gull was the only migratory species in this study. These gulls annually migrated from the People’s Republic of China to Thailand through Bangladesh, India and Myanmar and some of them further traveled to Cambodia and Vietnam. In Asian open-billed storks, we demonstrated that the birds changed their migratory behaviors to be a Thai resident species. This may result from rapid development of irrigation system and the abundance of golden apple snail, which is a favorite feed of these birds. These ecological factors do facilitate their living conditions and survivorship. The great egrets tagged in the present study only roamed around a few provinces in the central region of Thailand. However, the migratory status of the ducks was inconclusive as we lost signals from these ducks in only few months. Based on migratory behaviors and laboratory results, brown headed gull could be a potential long distance migrant for HPAI H5N1spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries.
Dr. Benjamin Fontes, MPH, CBSP
Biosafety Officer Yale University Environmental Health & Safety
Biorisk Management Lessons Learned from the Evaluation of High Risk Biohazard Protocols
Common methods of identifying Biorisk are the utilization of databases and authorization forms. Databases can provide topical information without providing an accurate assessment of the full risk. Reliance on standard forms for Biorisk review also only share a glimpse into the proposed studies. This presentation will use case study examples of high risk biohazard projects to elucidate critical lessons learned during the Biorisk evaluation process and provide simple risk assessment and risk management structure for effective Biorisk management.
Brett Goode Program Advisor U.S. Department of State Biosecurity Engagement Program
Our BEP Mission - Partnerships for Global Biosecurity
Since its founding in 2006, BEP has worked with thousands of scientists, public
and animal health professionals, and government officials to reduce biological
threats. BEP has developed robust partnerships with countries in South and
Southeast Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and elsewhere
to promote biorisk management and enhance disease surveillance efforts.
Dr Se Thoe Su Yun
Deputy Director, Biosafety Branch, Singapore Ministry of Heath
Ms Chook Mee Lan
Assistant Director, Facilities Services & Safety. Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore.
PERFORMING BIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESMENT- Principle and methodology
This workshop introduces the principles of performing risk assessment in a biological environment. The methodology used is Activity Base risk assessment which includes hazard identification, evaluation, risk control and performance assessment. There will be class exercise with practical examples. Participants would be able to perform risk assessment in a systematic manner from technical measure, action to documentation by end of the workshop.
Hsing-Ming Chen, pHD President Taiwan Biological safety Association
Sharing biosafety experiences from Taiwan: Auditing and Inspection Program for TB BSL-3 lab in Taiwan
The Taiwan Biological Safety Association (TBSA) is a not-for-profit, multi-disciplinary professional organization founded in 2005 for the purpose of promoting the principles of biological safety and preventing the occurrence of following laboratory biosafety accident. Besides, TBSA was founded to provide a professional forum for dissemination of information between individuals in this and related fields; to inform the public about the value of biological agents in research and health care, and the role they play in disease as well as in the improvement of the quality of life; to identify new biologically hazardous agents and to determine guidelines for their safe use; to promote the recognition of biosafety as a scientific discipline.
In view that the Taiwan Biological Safety Association (TBSA) will hold a 95th annual training forum in 2006 by inviting some related committees and expert groups as the speaker to instruct some investigators and research staff members who work involving in biosafety level 2, 3 and TB lab. Its goals are to provide a channel for occupational safety and health professionals and practitioners across the TBSA to exchange experiences and share their expertise in a variety of biological safety topics.
In summary, the main aims are to:
Encourage the dissemination of good practice information by according to “the biosafety standard of Biosafety Level 3 and TB lab” and “the safe handling of infectious biomaterials and infectious agents” in health center and research organization located on North, central, south and east of Taiwan.
Promote discussion among practitioners and the exchange of useful experiences and expertise to control the identified risks or reduce them to acceptable levels.
Identify existing areas of concern among practitioners through irregularly and regularly inspecting with Center for Disease Control, Taiwan, ROC (CDC).
Identify new areas of concern that could be an input into the agency's work program access the forum
Dr Chua Teck Mean
Mr Shanon Jones Director of Life Sciences
Biocontainment Facility-Design and Engineering Challengers for a Safe and Sustainable Laboratory The design of a Biocontainment Facility (BF) regardless of classification requires a change in design mentality from typical institutes, because not only is there a challenge to design for environmental challenges, and safety challenges, there is also factors such as unique guidelines and constructability which factor into the overall process. Sustainability is often desired, but not always achievable because of the complexity of incorporating the necessary infrastructure to simply meet guideline compliancy.
In this course, we plan to touch base on several key elements which lay the foundation of lab design and what to expect for operational costs and service. Before any lab passes certification, the lab must also go through the stage of Commissioning, which during commissioning, the client can then understand the true nature of operation and the level of sustainability of their new lab. These costs can significantly alter the planning for future labs as well as drive the A/E market to design new concepts and technology into their facility.
Several key elements we want to cover in this course are:
Design and Engineering Principles of Biocontainment Facility looking at the existing concepts for BSL3/ABSL3 facilities
Importance of Basis of Design (BOD) which will help your team have a better understanding of the constructability, performance/function, and overall budgeting for your new facility
HVAC Design for Energy Savings and Sustainability which we hope to share some newer design practices and critical planning for future expansion
Maintenance Consideration being a key element of early design and a must need for interactive staff through the construction and commissioning phase
Commissioning and Certification planning as part of the design phase and the need to also incorporate your commissioning team early on as well as
communication and expectations when dealing with your certification team.
Your responsibilities to develop an SOP which will provide Safety, Security and Flexibility while engaging your staff and their new laboratory.
Not every new facility has the funding for an elaborate design and operation budget, and the key factors above will need to be addressed with you and your design team. We hope your team walks away having an understanding of how these key elements drive Sustainability and at times, the lack there of.
Dr. Cecelia V. Williams Ph.D., Principal Member of the Technical Staff Sandia National Laboratories/International Biological Threat Reduction
Shipping Infectious Substances and Biological Specimens (Certification Course)
Shipping Infectious Substances & Biological Specimens course introduces students to shipping dangerous goods with a focus on how to properly classify, package, mark, label, and complete the appropriate paperwork to ship infectious substances and other biological materials. This course will provide awareness of international dangerous goods shipping regulations and other requirements as they relate to Class 6.2 (infectious substances) and Class 9 (Dry ice). Risk assessment principles will be applied to learn how to properly classify biological agents as Category A or Category B infectious substances, or those that are exempt from shipping regulations. Through hands on practice with participants will gain practical experience in packaging, marking, labeling and documentation. Students who successful complete the course and pass the final exam can be certified according to International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations.
Guy P Collyer esq. OBE Director General INTERNATIONAL OFFICE FOR INNOVATION IN REDUCING CRIME Ltd. (IOIRC)
Biosecurity and Responding to Biological threats
In recent years, terrorist groups have shown an increasing interest in the use of weaponised hazardous materials (sometimes referred to as weapons of mass destruction). Chemicals have been used against civilians in Syria and Iraq, and in France during the latter part of 2015, there was a theft of PPE from a hospital shortly followed by a threat to poison the water supply in Paris.
This presentation will assist in developing your knowledge of the current known threats to the life sciences and the new techniques used by criminal organisations to proliferate materials so that they can make such weapons.
Hei Chan Lee Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering,
Sun Moon University, Asan, Korea 336-708
Large Scale Biosafety
Recent development of biotechnology makes every part of human life involved with the products utilizing recombinant DNA technology and this poses different questions on the safety side of all kind human activities. Of all the cases, people handling dangerous biological agents in the laboratories are in highly possible danger of encounters with pathogenic microbes and toxins. These biohazardous agents are categorized into four levels and all the agents need to be handled by properly trained people under appropriate environments according to the agent’s biosafety level and the scale of the system.
General requirements for the facilities and equipments are well documented in BMBL and other safety guidelines. However, detailed conditions and precautions depends on many factors including size such as volume and concentration of the culture and environments.
Horm Srey Viseth Researcher Institut Pasteur du Cambodge
Human, Environmental and Animal Surveillance of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Cambodian Live Poultry Markets
Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance was conducted in four live bird markets in Cambodia in 2013 and 2015 through the collection of poultry and environmental samples. AIVs were detected in a very high proportion of duck swabs, chicken swabs and environmental samples. Peak AIV circulation was associated with national festivals, in particular the Lunar New Year. Serological testing in a cohort of poultry market workers suggests that these people are frequently infected with AIVs and likely experience asymptomatic infections.
Dr James Blaine Centers for Disease Control, USA
Lessons from our neighbors…coordinating and building national biorisk systems in the Asia Pacific
The workshop will bring together regional representatives to share experiences on the development and management of national bio-risk oversight systems in their country. The workshop agenda will have DSAT present on national bio-risk systems followed by presentations from A-PBA member countries (Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia) on their experiences in developing and managing national systems. These presentations will be followed by panel discussion to identify commonalities and explore key components of a national system.
James M Welch Executive Director Elizabeth R Griffin Foundation
Safer Together: The Mission of the Elizabeth R Griffin Foundation
Since its origin in 1997, the Elizabeth R Griffin Foundation has worked in developing collaborations with public and private organisations, associations, institutions and governmental agencies and ministries in in matters related to the management of biological risks in research and clinical environments. This presentation aims to give a brief history of our efforts, the importance of collaborations and alliances in building cultures of safety, the specific importance of our relationships in the Asia-Pacific region and our view of the future.
Joy Potenciano-Calayo, RMT, MSc. President, PHBBA
Development of curriculum on Biosecurity and DUR Philippines
In her talk, Prof. Calayo will highlight the importance of keeping balance between biosafety and biosecurity, and how biosecurity particularly can be inculcated into the education curriculum in the local country, to specifically fit into the Outcome-based Teaching-Learning Method being used in higher education in her country today.
Mrs. Juthamas Siripanee Medical technologist (Senior professional level) Bureau of Pathogens and Animal Toxins Act, Department of Medical Sciences
Development and Implementation of national oversight system for
bio-security in Thailand
Pathogens and Animal Toxins Act B.E.2525 (1982) was intended to protect public and prevent harm from pathogens and animal toxins. Since used for long time, not comply with certain provisions, pathogens and animal toxins, by technology, is used in useful or dangerous way include biological weapons, in 2015, New PAT Act announced. Contents are further provisions on pathogens and animal toxins, Minister of Public Health, by committee’s recommendation, has power to prescribe rules and procedures to protect public and prevent harm, improve control on pathogens and animal toxins, prescribe civil liability, and amend penalties.
Deputy Secretary General National Authority for the Prohibition of Chemical, Nuclear, Biological and Radiological Weapons
Activities related CBRN Risk mitigation
Within framework of the EU CBRN Centres of Excellence initiative, the National CBRN Team is a coordinating and information-sharing mechanism between the different national institutions involved at various levels in CBRN risk mitigation. The National CBRN Team is one of the key elements for the successful development and implementation of a comprehensive and inter-grated national CBRN risk mitigation policy.
Dr Keith Landy
Germfree Laboratories Inc.
Dr Paul A. Jensen
Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Biosafety Cabinetry/Microbiological Safety Cabinets – What you need to know to keep you and your lab safe
Ventilated Work Stations (VWS) and Biosafety Cabinetry/Microbiological Safety Cabinets (BSC/MSC) are the primary means of primary containment developed for working safely with infectious microorganisms. Brief descriptions of the facility and engineering concepts for the conduct of microbiological research will also be provided. VWS and BSC/MSC are only one part of an overall biosafety program, which requires consistent use of good microbiological practices, use of primary containment equipment and proper containment facility design. An overview will be provided to clarify the expectations, functions and performance of these critical primary containment devices. Best practices for certification will be addressed in an open discussion.
Following is the course outline:
I. History of the Biological Safety Cabinet
II. Primary Containment Devices: Biological Safety Cabinets
I. Class I BSC/MSC
II. Class II BSC/MSC - Bio-hood
III. Class III BSC/MSC - Glovebox
III. Other Primary Containment Devices
I. Ventilated Work Station
II. Chemical Fume Hood
III. Laminar Flow Cabinets (horizontal & vertical)
IV. PCR boxes
IV. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters
V. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI)
VI. Risk assessment and selection of appropriate Primary Containment Device(s)
VII. Maintenance and Operation
VIII. Safety and Good Microbiological Practices
IX. BSC Design Certification
X. Field Testing/Certification and Field Performance Checks
International Federation of Biosafety Associations
Achieving Competency for Biosafety Professionals
At the 9th A-PBA Biosafety Conference held in November 2014 in Bangkok, the IFBA launched a new program to certify the competency of biosafety professionals worldwide. Since that time, 76 individuals from 25 countries (including Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, and Korea) have achieved their professional certification. Another 46 candidates are currently enrolled in an upcoming exam session. In the Asia-Pacific region, several individuals have successfully achieved both their Professional Certification in Biorisk Management and in Biological Waste Management.
The examinations are currently being translated into French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic and new certifications will soon be offered in the following disciplines:
• Biocontainment Facility Design, Operations, and Maintenance
• Biosafety Cabinet Selection, Installation, and Safe Use
Maureen O'Leary, PhD, MBA, CBSP
Director of Environmental Health and Safety
ABSA International President-Elect
Updates from American Biological Safety Association
The ABSA International Update presentation will give an overview of our initiatives, strategy and resources available to the global biosafety community. In addition, the talk will discuss our involvement in the Global Health Security Agenda, the development of an ISO standard, and our engagement in life science policy.
Michael Weaver Senior Program Manager International Science and Technology Center
IFBA Biosafety Hero Award Presentation The International Federation of Biosafety Associations (IFBA) has developed a Biosafety Heroes awards program, with the goal of identifying and celebrating extraordinary individuals who make significant contributions in the field of biosafety and biosecurity. Biosafety Heroes serve as role models, showing that each individual can contribute to the global fight against infectious disease. Two of the 2015 Heroes will be recognized at this conference. IFBA encourages all to submit nominations for this unique award. Forms and information are available on the IFBA website.
Dr Paul A. Jensen
Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Naturally Ventilated Laboratory Development
Public health laboratories must provide quality results while working in a safe environment. The major challenge to the success of public health laboratories is understanding the risk and making the laboratory sustainable. Based on risk, the vast majority of public health laboratories require BLS 1 or 2 facilities, equipment, and work practices. While not explicitly stated, a well-designed naturally ventilated laboratory will exceed the ventilation requirements of WHO (2004 & 2012). Experimental data showed that with opposing openings, each 10% of the area of the laboratory, provided an average of 41 ACH and ranged from 20-60 ACH. The wind speed averaged 3.5 km/h and ranged from 0-12 km/h (gusting wind one day). In addition to room ventilation, primary containment devices are necessary to control risk during certain procedures. A ventilated workstation (VWS) was augmented with a Tirrill (similar to Bunsen) burner, a whirlybird, and a whirlybird/solar-powered fan combination. All three VWS configurations provided the minimum recommended inflow velocity of >0.35 m/s and none provided greater than the maximum recommended inflow velocity of 0.55 m/s under the conditions tested. In summary, naturally ventilated laboratories and equipment can provide a safe work environment for workers and is sustainable in even the most resource-limited settings where the microenvironment permits natural ventilation.
Dr. Paul Selleck Virologist, CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory
Animal Biosafety and Biosecurity There are many reasons for humans to interact with animals, however when those animals are infected by a pathogen they present a risk for people in contact with them. Adequate training, equipment and personal protective equipment are essential in minimising the risk and this presentation will identify some of the hazards and discuss and demonstrate practical means of protecting both field officers and laboratory staff acquiring infections from animals or spreading those infections to other animals.
Dr. Pretty Multihartina President, IBA
ADVANCE BIORISK OFFICER TRAINING – UPDATE FROM INDONESIA Human resources are the important point in biorisk management implementation. To achieve a competency in human resources, it should be integrated through training and practices methods to build those competences. Basic training is dedicated for beginner to increase their awareness, and advance training is targeted to maintain and updating their competences, expected to be able to deliver biorisk theory to their community.
Based on Indonesian experience, trainings performed is aimed to build capacity and develop national network among biorisk management practitioners.
Dr. Sau Sokunna
Department of Hospital Services, Ministry of Health
Challenge and Biosafety Implementation in Cambodia Cambodia faces the challenges in developing its laboratory capacity to implement the biosafety guidelines for quality standard. In the past few years, the government of Cambodia, with support from aid agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), has developed a number of strategic plans, including the national biosafety guidelines and set up biosafety committee. Although the majority of the laboratories are conforming to laboratory quality standard with overview of the status of laboratory Biosafety, the challenge is how to manage and implement the laboratories national biosafety guidelines.
Dr Se Thoe Su Yun
Deputy Director, Biosafety Branch
Singapore Ministry of Health
Biosafety Training Curriculum, the Singapore experience Good training and competent workers are paramount to ensure safety in a workplace. To ensure laboratory personnel are equipped with the necessary competencies when working with biological agents and materials, we have mapped up a biosafety training framework which comprises three levels of competency and qualifications. This framework harmonizes all the industry best practices and provides a systematic training pathway for personnel working in the bio-industry. It sets industry best practices, reduces repetitive and redundant training across different entities; and provides clear progression pathway for laboratory personnel aspire to advance their knowledge and career in biosafety.
Stuart D. Blacksell
Senior Researcher/Head of Biosafety
Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit
FAO biosafety laboratory mapping tool – development and application in Asia The FAO Core Laboratory Mapping Tool (Core LMT) is a standardized metric to assess laboratory capacity and infrastructure. It provides a snapshot of laboratory functionality and reliable and accurate data of each laboratory. The Core LMT provides a means for laboratories to identify their own gaps, set up goals to improve their laboratories and provide development track. It enables partners and donors to recognize laboratory functionality and thus take sustainable measures to support laboratory capacity building. Biosafety is an important component of the Core LMT and in addition a specific Biosafety LMT has also been developed. The advantages to the use of the LMT for biosafety purposes are discussed.
Mr. Syam Kumar Prabhakaran,
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia
BIORISK MANAGEMENT: A PREPARATORY COURSE FOR IFBA PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION The objective of this pre-conference workshop is to provide guidance to participants planning to sit for the Professional Certification examination, Part 1 on Biorisk Management, offered by the International Federation of Biosafety Associations (IFBA), which is a fundamental requirement for other specialised certificates. The IFBA professional certification examination provides an excellent opportunity for biosafety officers to advance their careers and achieve international recognition. The examination syllabus is based on the principles outlined by the WHO laboratory biorisk guidance, 2006 and the laboratory biorisk management standard, CWA 15793, that has been successfully adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2013.
This workshop training will provide an overview on laboratory biorisk management based on CWA 15793. A laboratory biorisk management system is based on identifying biological risks in the workplace and mitigating these risks as a continuous improvement process to improve the organization’s overall performance and effectiveness. Laboratory biorisk management encompasses both laboratory biosafety and biosecurity. Establishing a biosafety and biosecurity management system in an organization minimizes risk to employees, the community and the environment that may be exposed to biological materials as a consequence of its activities.
Training will cover the fundamentals, elements and implementation of biorisk management in laboratories. This workshop aims to provide adequate knowledge and skills in sufficient degree to safely and securely manage biological risks in the laboratory and healthcare settings. This workshop is suited for a wide range of professionals working with and around biological materials in functions such as Scientists, Biosafety officers, Facility designers and policy makers.
Tatyana Novossiolova, PhD Preventing Biological Threats: What You Can Do
The Essential Role of Biosecurity Education in Fostering a Culture of Responsibility in the Life Sciences
The presentation addresses biosecurity understood as successful minimising of the risks that the biological sciences may be deliberately or accidentally misused in a away which causes harm to humans, animals, plants or the environment, through enhanced awareness and understanding of those risks. It discusses the role of raising awareness and engaging life scientists with issues of biological security as a way of promoting and strengthening a culture of biosecurity and, thus building an integrated web of preventive policies, measures, and practices that ensures that biotechnology is utilised only for peaceful, prophylactic, and protective purposes. The presentations reports on the work carried out within the framework of a project jointly funded by Canada and the UK under the Global Partnership, as part of which two online books on biological security have been developed. The books are presented in some detail; the importance of active learning is discussed; and useful guidance and tips on course development are outlined.
Project Coordinator – Malaysia
Country Coordinator PREDICT Malaysia
One Health Networks & Zoonotic surveillances – The PREDICT Project in Malaysia
The majority of emerging diseases are zoonotic and almost all recent pandemics
originate from viruses that naturally occur in wildlife. The USAID's Emerging
Pandemic Threats PREDICT program aims to integrate wildlife disease surveillance
into the public health infrastructure to create an early warning system for potential
zoonotic disease spillover into domestic animals and humans. The One Health
Network in Malaysia and the zoonotic surveillance being conducted, shows that if we
work collaboratively we can get ready for, and prevent emerging diseases.
Dr Viji Vijayan
Assistant Dean, Safety Health and Emergency Management
Duke-NUS Medical School
Sharing biosafety experiences from Singapore
What is safety? Is it the prevention of accidents? Is that why we always rethink safety only when there is an accident? Safety is usually defined as a situation where nothing goes wrong, because we know that is not possible, we define it as a situation where the number of things that go wrong is acceptably small. We measure safety only by something not happening, an accident. The simplistic view of safety is that if nothing goes wrong we are fine but if something does go wrong we should find a cause (often human error) and put it many stricter measures like more training, more SOPs, more stringent selection process. Are we doing the right thing? A new concept of safety is now being adopted in high risk industries like aviation, and nuclear plants. This is called Safety II. Safety two says that people do not come to work thinking that they want to cause an accident and the number of times when work goes on without any accidents (which is the majority of times), it is because the workers are able to make adjustments based on their knowledge, expertise and competencies. Therefore, the key to ensuring safety is to support the workers and allow diversity and variability in their work practices, of course within some broad boundaries. Let us explore this concept in a biomedical laboratory setting.
National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC
Good laboratory practices guarantee biosafety in the Sierra Leone–China Friendship Biosafety Laboratory
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2016was the largest EVD epidemic in history. The Sierra Leone–China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory, a BSL-3 laboratory in Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government. Many EVD cases have been diagnosed and no laboratory incidence happened in this laboratory since March 2015.Operation documents, appropriate PPE, effective monitoring and intensive training, together with well-designed layout based on risk assessment are essential for guaranteeing biosafety.